has been an essential part of the human development since the beginning
of recorded history (more than 5,000 years ago). Over the years it has
evolved in the planning and execution of nearly every form of physical
and non-physical (institutional) development on the earth. Its most
familiar modern uses are in the fields transport, building and
industrial construction, communications, mapping, land ownership,
dispute resolution, auditing, budgeting and accounting-to name a few .
In these days, conventional mechanical surveying techniques have given
way for the digital surveying techniques. Today, surveyors use various
tools to do their work successfully and accurately, such as total
stations, GPS receivers, prisms, 3D scanners, radio communicators,
handheld tablets, digital levels, and surveying software. This book
provides a detailed description, with many problems and worked out
examples, of the methods and tools of modern surveying. The book has
been prepared from the materials supplied by the three organizations,
mentioned in the cover.